Mr. Speaker, Francis Scott Key is best known for being the author of our National Anthem, ``The Star Spangled Banner.'' During the second American revolution, the War of 1812, the British reinvaded the United States, captured Washington, DC, burned this building, the White House and most of this city.
The English then set sail for nearby Baltimore and were determined to take the city, but Fort McHenry was blocking and protecting Baltimore Harbor. Key, a lawyer, had boldly gone on board a British ship to seek release of a captured United States citizen. The Royal Navy held both Key and his client and refused to release either until after the British naval attack on the fort was completed. During the night, the British bombarded the fort with hundreds of shells and rockets, but at ``dawn's early light,'' the American defenders still held the fort, refusing to surrender, and a massive 30 foot by 40 foot American flag still flew defiantly over Fort McHenry. The unsuccessful British sailed away. Francis Scott Key, upon seeing the flag, wrote our national anthem that was sung this past 4th of July throughout the prairies and plains of America.
But, Mr. Speaker, Key also has a Texas connection. Before Sam Houston made his way to Texas, he served with Andrew Jackson in the Indian wars and was elected United States Congressman for Tennessee for two terms and served as Governor of Tennessee.
After his governorship, Houston spent time in Washington, DC, during the 1830s advocating on behalf of the Cherokee Indians and denouncing the corruption in the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
In 1832, Congressman William Stanbery from Ohio made slanderous accusations about Houston and the Cherokees on the floor of Congress. One morning, Houston was leaving a boarding house on Pennsylvania Avenue and saw Stanbery walking down the street. A confrontation occurred between the two men over Stanbery's statement. A street brawl resulted. Sam Houston thrashed and viciously beat Congressman Stanbery with his hickory walking cane for Stanbery's derogatory remarks on this House floor. Stanbery then pulled a pistol and put it to the chest of Houston, but the pistol misfired. Mr. Speaker, fate saved Sam Houston's life.
The United States Congress ordered the arrest of Sam Houston, charging him with assault and demeaning a Member of Congress. Houston was tried before Congress in a joint session with the Supreme Court acting as judges. The trial lasted a month. Houston spent one full day on this House floor in boisterous oratory stating his positions, that he was defending his honor; Stanbery was the aggressor; and anyway, Stanbery deserved the severe caning.
So what does Francis Scott Key have to do with any of this? Francis Scott Key was Sam Houston's defense lawyer. He did an admirable job in the defense of this later Texas hero, but after the trial was over, Houston was found guilty, publically reprimanded and ordered to pay a $500 fine. Houston refused to pay the fine and, rather than face more problems with Congress, left Washington that same year and began a new life and political career in Texas. And the rest, they say, is Texas history.
General Sam Houston was the successful commander of the Texas Army during the Texas War of Independence from Mexico in 1836. After defeating Dictator Santa Anna on the marshy plains of San Jacinto, Houston became the first president of the Republic of Texas. After Texas was admitted to the United States in 1845, he was a United States Senator and then Governor of the State. Houston is the only person to serve as Governor and Member of Congress from two di